Biological characterisation is conducted in our lab by in vitro cell culture techniques using human osteoblasts and monocytes. Cellular attachment, proliferation, viability and penetration into three-dimensional fibre networks is investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Alamarblue and Cyquant assays, and fluorescence microscopy. Alkaline phosphatase activity is measured as an early stage marker of osteoblast differentiation, while mineral production in late stage cultures of human osteoblasts is examined by alizarin red staining. In terms of monocyte studies, lactate dehydrogenase release from damaged membranes provides an indicator of monocyte cytotoxicity, while the release of the cytokine, TNF-alpha, provides an indicator of inflammatory response. Taken together, these in vitro cell culture techniques provide a comprehensive evaluation of the biomedical potential of the medical materials under investigation.